Prof. Dr. phil. habil. Thomas Gronwald,MSH Hamburg

Profil deutsch:

Thomas Gronwald leitet das „Department Performance, Neuroscience, Therapy and Health“ im Bereich der Sportwissenschaft an der MSH Medical School Hamburg und ist Trainingswissenschaftler und -methodiker mit dem Schwerpunkt Belastungs- und Beanspruchungssteuerung. Im Speziellen beschäftigt er sich mit der Trainingssteuerung für Ausdauer- und Spielsportathleten über Biomarkeranalysen sowie mit Auswirkungen von Ermüdungsprozessen auf das autonome und zentrale Nervensystem und der systemdynamischen Selbstregulation (z.B. über nicht-lineare Analysen der Herzfrequenzvariabilität). Zudem arbeitet er an Analysen von Verletzungsmustern und multimodalen Trainingsansätzen zur Verletzungsreduktion in Spielsport- und Individualsportarten. Er hat mehrere Bücher geschrieben und über 70 wissenschaftliche und praxisbezogene Zeitschriftenartikel veröffentlicht. 

Profile english:

Thomas Gronwald heads the „Department Performance, Neuroscience, Therapy and Health“ in section sports science at MSH Medical School Hamburg. He is an exercise and training scientist/methodologist with a focus on internal and external load analysis in strength and conditioning training. Specifically, he focuses on load management and monitoring approaches for endurance and team sport athletes via biomarker analyses as well as effects of fatigue processes on the autonomic and central nervous system along with approaches of system dynamic organismic self-regulation (e.g., via non-linear heart rate variability analysis). He is also working on analyses of injury patterns and multimodal exercise and training approaches for injury reduction in team sports and individual sports. He has written several books and over 70 scientific and practical journal articles.

further references:

Further references / publications 

Blog Beitrag Deutsch: Gronwald, T. (2022). Verletzungen der Hamstringmuskulatur im Profifußball: Potenzial zur Verletzungsreduktion der Hamstringmuskulatur durch anforderungsspezifische Multikompo-nentenprogramme. DFB-Akademie Wissensportal. Online-Veröffentlichung am 7. April 2022.

Open Access Artikel Deutsch: Ertelt, T., Büsch, D. & Gronwald, T. (2020). Biomechanische Besonderheiten der Hamstrings und Strategien zur Verletzungsprävention. Sportphysio, 8 (5), 249-257.

Kein Open Access Englisch: Gronwald, T., Klein, C., Hoenig, T., Pietzonka, M., Bloch, H., Edouard, P. & Hollander, K. (2022). Infographic. Video analysis of match hamstring injury patterns in professional male football (soccer) teaches us about the need for demand-specific multicomponent exercise-based risk reduction programmes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, ahead of print.

Kein Open Access Englisch: Gronwald, T., Klein, C., Hoenig, T., Pietzonka, M., Bloch, H., Edouard, P. & Hollander, K. (2022). Hamstring injury patterns in professional male football (soccer): a systematic video analysis of 52 cases. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 56 (3), 165-171.

Verletzungsmuster der Hamstringmuskulatur im Profifußball


Hamstring muscle injury patterns in professional football (soccer): potential for injury reduction by demand-specific multicomponent strength and conditioning programs.


Although hamstring injuries represent a high proportion of injuries and a high injury burden in professional football, little attention has been given to understanding typical patterns of hamstring injuries. Understanding injury causation represents one key factor in injury risk mitigation. A recent systematic video analysis of inciting events of non-contact and indirect contact hamstring injuries in professional male football showed how match hamstring injuries occur and supports the need for demand-specific multi-component risk reduction programs. The pattern analysis revealed that sprint-related and stretch-related injury patterns occur in almost equal parts. Despite the variety of inciting events, rapid movements with high eccentric demands of the posterior thigh may be considered as an important mechanism of match hamstring injuries. The results suggest that it may be important to achieve high-speed running or maximal speed (equal to football match demands) in training sessions. This analysis also indicates that exercises which include braking or stopping (deceleration) movements with high eccentric force potential could be appropriate tools in hamstring injury risk reduction. Therefore, the implementation of eccentric hamstring-strengthening exercises such as the Nordic hamstring exercise and plyometrics (ability of force development and absorption) with high dynamic demands in the stretch-shortening cycle could be appropriate, including almost full knee joint extension during jumping-landing continuum. Such an approach should include reactive or unanticipated situations challenging multi-planar trunk stability in addition to planned actions, due to the indirect-contact nature of most lunging pattern injuries. In this regard, with the hip joint movement involving hip extension to hip flexion (upper body propulsion) most frequently during stretch-related patterns of hamstring injuries, strengthening of hip extension musculature could be an additional risk mitigation factor including a continuum of hip- and knee-dominant exercises. The development, implementation and evaluation of various strengthening exercises accounting for the specific demands of professional football and hamstring injury patterns are necessary. In addition, analysis of sprint kinematics, lumbo-pelvic control and running technique during deceleration in change of direction demands should be addressed as promising modifiable factors for risk mitigation of hamstring injuries in professional football. Furthermore, research is needed to verify an appropriate training frequency, volume and moment to schedule in the microcycle of the mentioned various strength and conditioning training methods. The presentation will summarize the current scientific and practical evidence of risk mitigation approaches of hamstring muscle injuries in professional football.